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Monday, May 13, 2019

Quran, 2:26-27

 إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ (26) الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (27

(26) Behold, ALLAH does not disdain to propound a similitude of a gnat, or of something [even] less than that. [1] Now, as for the believers, they know that it is the truth from their Lord - whereas the disbelievers say, "What could ALLAH mean by this similitude?"[2] In this way does He cause many a one to go astray, just as He guides many a one aright: but none does He cause thereby to go astray save the iniquitous. [3] (27) Who break their oath with ALLAH after it has been established,[4] and cut asunder what ALLAH has bidden to be joined,[5] and spread corruption on the land:[6] these it is that shall be the losers.[7]

[1] When the hypocrites came to know the similitudes made about them in the Ayat 2:17-18, they objected on these similitudes. So their objection is refuted here indirectly. Moreover, their hypocrisy was fully revealed when they objected on the Quranic parables.
[2] Here is given another contrast between the behavior of true believers and hypocrites. The true believers believed every Divine Revelation, with full confidence and trust, while the hypocrites kept wandering in the valley of doubts. Their query, “What could ALLAH mean by this similitude?” was not for the sake of knowledge, but to object and make fun of the Quranic narrative.
[3] The context clearly indicates that ALLAH Almighty does not cause a righteous person to go astray, but simply His revelations increase doubts of an astray. As He says:
Their hearts are diseased, so ALLAH lets their disease increase.” [2:10]

And whenever a surah is revealed, there are among the hypocrites those who say, "Which of you has this increased faith?" As for those who believed, it has increased them in faith, while they are rejoicing. But as for those in whose hearts is disease, it has [only] increased them in evil [in addition] to their evil. And they will have died while they are disbelievers. [9:124-125]

The Arabic construction Fasiqeen is the nominative plural form of Fasiq, that is derived from the root ف س ق  , that renders to disobedience. So Fasiqeen means the disobedient folk literally, that refers to the hypocrites, who are disbelievers inwardly.

[4] It was customary in the Prophet’s life, that when a person converted to Islam, he would give his pledge to the Prophet Muhammad for following him in all the good or bad circumstances. The hypocrites did give their pledge to the Prophet as well. In this Ayah that pledge is considered as their oath with LLAH, because the Prophet was appointed by Him to follow. This sort of  pledge has been reported in many authentic Hadiths, for instance as follows:
Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them)said:
"We used to pledge to the Messenger of Allah to listen and obey”.
[Sunan An-Nasai:H#4192]
Malik al-Ashja'i (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
We, nine, eight or seven men, were in the company of the Messenger of Allah () and he said: Why don't you pledge allegiance to the Messenger of Allah? -while we had recently pledged allegiance. So we said: Messenger of Allah, we have already pledged allegiance to you. He again said: Why don't you pledge allegiance to the Messenger of Allah? And we said: Messenger of Allah, we have already pledged allegiance to you. He again said: Why don't you pledge allegiance to the Messenger of Allah? We stretched our hands and said: Messenger of Allah. we have already pledged allegiance to you. Now tell (on what things) should we pledge allegiance to you. He said I (You must pledge allegiance) that you would worship Allah only and would not associate with Him anything, (and observe) five prayers, and obey- (and he said onething in an undertone) -that you would not beg people of anything. (And as a consequence of that) I saw that some of these people did not ask anyone to pick up the whip for them if it fell down. [Sahih Muslim:H#1043]

[5] Islam spreads the message of love and peace. It strengthens the ties between the blood relations and closely related families. It bonds the humanity into one nation without any discrimination of colour, language and clan. Family is the unit of a social set up. Great stress has been put on binding oneself to one’s family by helping them in all family matters. The Messenger of Allah () motivated time and again to join the tie of kinship.
Anas bin Malik reported that Allah's Messenger () said:
He who likes that his sustenance should be expanded and his age may be lengthened should join the tie of kinship. [Sahih Muslim:H#2557]
We can conclude that breaking the ties of kinship is a grave sin, that may result in misguidance, being a prominent characteristic of hypocrites.
[6] The hypocrites were engaged in activities against the cause of Islam. It has been elaborated earlier in Ayah 2:11-12.
[7] The loss mentioned in this Ayah is not a worldly loss, but it refers to the ultimate loss in afterlife, where the hypocrites, along with other disbelievers, will abide in Hell Fire for ever. This is also a comparison with the believers who have been given the glad tidings of being successful in afterlife.